Herzegovina. Is thus a region of Bosnia Herzegovina and it is the only one, situated on the south-east extremity of the country, to overlook the Adriatic Sea. Apart from the already mentioned Mostar, other important towns of Herzegovina are Trebinje,Konjic and Čapljina. Herzegovina is the most hilly part of the Bosnian Federation with an extensive karst area, excluding the part around the Neretva River.
During the Middle Ages, Herzegovina was divided between the Kingdom of Croatia and the Byzantine Empire. Later, from 1320 onwards, it became a part of the Bosnian Kingdom. Then came the Dukedom: in a document sent to Frederick III, on 20th January 1448, the Bosnian Duke Stjepan Vukčić Kosača nominated himself Herzog – “duke” in German – of the Saint Sava: therefore, the lands that he controlled became Herzegovina.
In the second half of the 15th century, Herzog too was overcome by the Turkish Ottomans. Herzegovina was then organized as a province (Sanjak) in the state (Pashaluk) of Bosnia. The State’s name changed for the last time into Bosnia Herzegovina in 1853 and, from this moment on, its destiny was that of Bosnia and all its history from then on up until today.